Il saggiatore (The assayer) by Galileo Galilei (–) is the final and most significant work in the polemic regarding the characteristics of. This is Galileo’s argument from “The Assayer,” which I encountered in both my history survey of modern philosophy and in metaphysics. Galileo. Galileo Galilei; Il Saggiatore (The Assayer); Rome, This quietly polemical text puts the case for a pared-down scientific conception of matter and a.
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Might this not come about from a wind in that quarter disturbing the waves at a distance?
To this I reply in the first place that for the same reason Sarsi might let Guiducci and me alone, as we are outside the circle of those worthy ancient and modem authors against whom his teacher was contending.
Actually in the brilliance of the brightest flashes of lightning not the slightest movement or change of shape is discerned in the clouds, and this is just when thunder is being formed.
Thus the spiral is regular, and its definition originates in two uniform motions, one straight and the other circular. This may be lengthened and shortened at will, making diverse pipes which will produce different notes; and such is the construction of the trombone. There they may learn that Archytas  made a dove that flew, that Archimedes made a mirror which kindled fires at great distances and many other remarkable machines, that other men have kindled perpetual fires, and a hundred more inventions no less amazing.
I want to teach Sarsi a method of representing a reflection very like a comet. Why did you not say to us at the outset, -Interpose a flame between the eye and some star, and the star will be made neither more nor less visible”? We merely do not believe that a cold arrow shot from a bow can take fire in the air; rather, we think that ff an arrow were shot when afire, it would cool down more quickly than it would if it were held still. Then turning about on the toe with this hand extended, one sees the ball turn on its axis in the opposite direction, and complete this revolution in the same time as one’s own.
Galileo proceeds by explaining the senses and their relation to elements. Few indeed are they who really know some part of it, and only One knows all. It is not my place to make trouble for another man by tearing off his mask after Sarsi’s own fashion, [p. A judge must seek by means of witnesses to determine whether Peter injured John last night, but not whether John was injured, since the judge can see that for himself.
The Assayer – Wikipedia
Discussions of the comets frequently occurred, during which I had occasion to voice some thoughts of mine which cast doubt upon the doctrines that have been previously held on this matter. Now let a slight breeze spring up and ruffle the surface of the water, when you will see the image of the sun begin assqyer break up into many pieces and extend into a wider area. Only through mathematics can one achieve lasting truth in physics. When touched upon the soles of the feet, for example, or under the knee or armpit, it feels in addition to the common sensation of touch a sensation on which we have.
And since you say the object to be seen gains an advantage from being bright, let it be one tne the stars which [p. Why must I attribute lightning to vehement motion when I see that fire is not excited without the rubbing of solid bodies which do not exist among the clouds? Some of these sensations are more pleasant to us than others. Well, after this man had come to believe that no galjlei ways of forming tones could possibly exist- after having observed, in addition to all the things already mentioned, a variety of organs, trumpets, fifes, stringed instruments, and even that little tongue of iron assayyer is placed between the teeth and which makes strange use of the oral cavity for sounding box and of the breath for vehicle of soundwhen, I say, this man believed he had seen everything, he suddenly found himself once more plunged deeper into ignorance and bafflement than ever.
This is not derision; it is simply the statement of our opinion.
Publishing under the title of The World of Jupiter, he had the gall to claim that he had observed the Medicean planets which revolve about Jupiter before I had. And note that the tenuous material which produces heat is even more subtle than that which causes odor, for the latter cannot leak through a glass container, whereas the material of heat makes its way through any substance. A visit to Rome confirmed this. You see how this gave me what I tne and such were the steps in my discovery, in which I was assisted not at all by the received opinion that the goal was a real one.
Attacking the first conclusion with great boldness, be says that to anyone who once looked at the comet, no assayre argument is necessary to prove the nature of its light, for by comparison with other true lights it clearly showed itself to be real and not spurious.
So is the ellipse, which originates from the cutting of a cone or a cylinder. Well, if we cannot have the presence of your poets who, as I say, would yield to experiencewe do have at hand archers and catapultists, and you may see for yourself whether citing your authorities to them can strengthen their arms to such an extent that the arrows they shoot and the lead balls they hurl Win take fire and melt in the air. After the theory was banned he utilized it to smuggle in the truth by pretending as here that Copernicus had assayee falsely in attributing a nonexistent motion to the earth.
I considered remaining perfectly silent in order to save myself any occasion for being the unhappy target of such sharpshooting, and to remove from others any material capable of exciting these reprehensible talents.
This is his argument, which so smoothly fits his needs and so neatly assists him that it almost looks as if his conclusion had been made before his premises, and the latter depended upon the former instead of vice versa.
I speak of Simon Mayr of Guntzenhausen.
But if you ever suggest this little game to Sarsi, and if he protests at great length, then I beg Your Excellency to tell him that I do not mean to imply by this that there is in the sky a huge carafe, and someone oiling it with his finger, thus forming a comet; I merely offer this as an example of Nature’s bounty and variety of methods for producing her effects.
Now, letting the objects pass out the window to a great distance, he tells me that in order to look at them it is necessary to shorten the telescope a good deal; and I affirm this. It is motion that causes wood to burn or metal to melt.
So when Sarsi brings in this multitude of authors it appears to me that instead of strengthening i g his conclusion he merely ennobles our case by showing that we have outreasoned many men of great reputation. He argues that heat is caused by tiny corpuscles moving at such a speed that they penetrate our bodies and that when they pass through us, the touch we feel is the heat.
But in order to put you at your ease and give you every advantage, I shall be content with much less.