CARTA DE CRISTOBAL COLON A LUIS DE SANTANGEL TESORERO DE LOS REYES CATOLICOS – SIGLO XV. Author: Christopher Columbus (). Carta de Cristobal Colón a Luis de Santangel (hoja 6). Items Letter of Columbus to Luis de Santangel, dated 15 February . de marzo: / Esta Carta en bio Colom A’esc[r]iuano Deraciõ / De las Jslas Halladas en.
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Columbus’s letter on the first voyage is the first known document announcing the results of the first voyage of Christopher Columbus that set out in and reached the Americas. The letter was instrumental in spreading the news throughout Europe sanrangel Columbus’s voyage. Almost immediately after Columbus’s arrival in Spain, printed versions of the letter began to appear. The Latin version was swiftly disseminated and reprinted in many other locations— BaselParisXetc.
In his letter, Christopher Columbus claims to have discovered and taken possession of a series of islands on the edge of the Indian Ocean in Asia. He described the islands, particularly Hispaniola and Cubaexaggerating their size and wealth, and suggested that mainland China probably lay nearby. He also carfa a brief description of the native Arawaks whom he called ” Indians “emphasizing their docility and amenability, and the prospects ccolon their mass conversion to Catholic Christianity.
However, the letter also revealed local rumors about a fierce man-eating tribe lis “monsters” in the area probably Caribsalthough Columbus himself disbelieved the stories, and dismissed them as myth. In the letter, Columbus urges the Catholic monarchs to sponsor a second, larger expedition to the Indies, promising to bring back immense riches.
A slightly different version of Columbus’s letter, in manuscript form, addressed to the Catholic monarchs of Spain, was found inpart of the Libro Copiador collection, and has led to some revision of the history of the Columbus letter.
Christopher Columbusa Genoese captain in the service of the Crown of Castileset lujs on his first voyage in August with the objective of reaching the East Indies by sailing west across the Atlantic Ocean. As is well known, instead of reaching Asia, Columbus stumbled upon the Caribbean islands of the Americas. According to the journal of his voyage, on February 14, Columbus was caught in a storm off the Azores islands.
The resulting poor condition of his ship forced him to put in at Lisbon Portugal on March 4, Columbus finally arrived at Palos de la Frontera in Spain eleven days later, on March 15, During the return journey, while aboard the ship, Columbus wrote a letter reporting the results of his voyage and announcing his discovery of the “islands of the Indies”.
Copies of Columbus’s letter were somehow picked up by publishers, and printed editions of his letter began to appear throughout Europe within weeks santnagel Columbus’s return to Spain. A Latin translation of the letter addressed to Gabriel Sanchez was printed in Rome about a month later.
Within the first year of his arrival, eight more editions of the Latin version were printed in various European cities—two in Baselthree in Parisanother two in Rome and another in Antwerp.
Already by Junethe letter had been translated by a poet into Italian verse, and that version went through multiple editions in the next couple of years. A German translation appeared in The rapid dissemination of Columbus’s letter was enabled by the printing pressa new invention that had established itself only recently.
Columbus’s letter particularly the Latin edition forged the initial public perception of the newly discovered lands. Indeed, until the discovery of Columbus’s on-board journal, first published in the 19th century, this letter was the only known direct testimony by Columbus of his experiences on the first voyage of Original versions of Columbus’s letter, written by his hand, have never been found.
Only the printed editions—Spanish and Latin—are known. However, a third version of ssntangel letter, contained in a 16th-century manuscript santange, known as the Libro Copiadorwas discovered in This manuscript version differs in several significant ways from the printed editions and, although its authenticity is still tentative, many believe the Copiador version to be a closer rendition of Columbus’s original missive.
The published Latin versions of the letter are almost all titled “Letter of Columbus, on the islands of India beyond the Ganges recently santangell. The term “India beyond the Ganges” India extra Gangem was the archaic term frequently used by earlier geographers e.
The earlier printed Spanish edition bears no title, nor does the manuscript copy of the letter to the Catholic monarchs Libro Copiador.
In the letter, Christopher Columbus does not describe the journey itself, saying only that he traveled thirty-three days and arrived at the islands of “the Indies” las Indias”all of which I took possession for our Highnesses, with proclaiming heralds and flying royal standards, and no one objecting”. He describes the islands as being inhabited by “Indians” Indios. In the printed letters, Columbus relates how he bestowed new names on six of the islands.
Four are in the modern Bahamas: ,uis the letter, Columbus says that he believes Juana is actually part of the continental mainland terra firme of Cathay Catayoarchaic for Chinaeven though he also admits some of the Indians he encountered informed him that Juana was an island. In his letter, Columbus describes how he sailed along the northern coast of Juana Cuba for a spell, searching for cities and rulers, but found only small villages “without any sort of government” “no cosa de regimiento”.
He notes that the natives usually fled when approached. Finding this track fruitless, he decided to double-back and head southeast, eventually sighting the large island of Hispaniola, and explored along its northern coast.
Columbus exaggerates the size of these lands, claiming Juana is greater in size than Great Britain “maior que Inglaterra y Escocia juntas” and Hispaniola larger than the Iberian peninsula “en cierco tiene mas que la Espana toda”. In his letter, Columbus seems to attempt to present the islands of the Indies as suitable for future colonization. Columbus’s descriptions of the natural habitat in his letters emphasize the rivers, woodlands, pastures, and fields “very suitable santangeo planting and cultivating, for raising all sorts of livestock herds and erecting towns and farms” “gruesas para plantar y senbrar, para criar ganados de todas suertes, para hedificios de villas e lugares”.
The Letter of Columbus to Luis De Sant Angel Announcing His Discovery
He also proclaims that Hispaniola “abounds in many spices, and great mines of gold, and other metals” “ay mucha especiarias y grandes minas de oros y otros metales”. He compares lush and well-watered Hispaniola as more favorable to settlement than mountainous Cuba. Columbus characterizes the native inhabitants of the Indies islands as primitive, innocent, without reason “like beasts”, “como bestias”and unthreatening.
He describes how they go about largely naked, that they lack iron and weapons, and are by nature fearful and timid “son asi temerosos sin remedio”even “excessively cowardly” santzngel demasiado grado cobardes”. Columbus makes particular note that the natives lack organized religion, not even idolatry “no conocian ninguna seta nin idolatria”. He claims the natives believed the Spaniards and their ships had “come down from heaven” “que yo Possibly worried that his characterization might make it appear that the natives are unsuitable for useful labor, Columbus notes that the Indians are “not slow or unskilled, but of excellent and acute understanding”.
He fe notes that the “women appear to work more than the men”. Columbus’s physical descriptions are brief, noting only that the natives have straight hair and “nor are they black like those in Guinea”.
They go around usually naked, although sometimes they wear a small cotton loincloth. They often carry santangl hollow canewhich they use to both till and fight. Coolon claims the Indians practice monogamy “each man is content with only one wife””except for the rulers and kings” who can have as many as twenty wives. He confesses he is uncertain if they have a notion of private property cilon he podido entender si tenian bienes proprios”. Columbus compares the Indian canoe to the European fusta small galley.
Towards the end of the letter, Columbus reveals that local Indians told him about the possible existence of cannibalswhich he refers to as “monsters” “monstruos”. This is a probable reference to the Caribs from the Leeward Islandsalthough neither the word “cannibal” nor “Carib” appears in the printed editions however, in cartaa Copiador letter, colpn claims the “monsters” come from an island called “Caribo”, possibly Dominica.
Luis de Santángel – Wikipedia
Columbus says the monsters are reported to be long-haired, very ferocious, and “eat human flesh” “los quales comen snatangel humana”. Columbus has not seen them himself, but says that local Indians claim the monsters have many canoes, and that they sail from island to island, raiding everywhere.
However, Columbus proclaims disbelief in the existence of these “monsters”, or rather suggests this dantangel likely just a local Indian myth pertaining to some distant Indian seafaring tribe who are probably not unlike themselves “I regard them as of no more account than the others”, cartz no los tengo en nada mas que a los otros”.
Columbus connects the monsters story to another local legend about a tribe of female warriorswho are said to inhabit the island cartaa “Matinino” east of Hispaniola “first island of the Indies, closest to Spain”, possibly referring to Guadaloupe. Columbus speculates that the aforesaid canoe-borne monsters are merely the “husbands” of these warrior luks, who visit the island intermittently for mating.
Lest his readers begin to get wary, Columbus rounds off with a more optimistic report, saying the local Indians of Hispaniola also told him about a very large island nearby which “abounds in countless gold” “en esta ay oro sin cuenta”. He doesn’t give this gold island a name in the printed letters, but in the Copiador version, this island is identified and named as ” Jamaica “. In the printed letters, Columbus claims to be bringing back some of the gold island’s “bald-headed” inhabitants with him.
Earlier luiz the letter, Columbus had spoken also of the land of “Avan” “Faba” in the Copiador letterin the western parts of Juana, where men are said to be “born with tails” “donde nacan la gente con cola” —probably a reference to the Guanajatabey of western Cuba. The Libro Copiador version of the letter contains more native names of islands than the printed editions.
Columbus also gives an account of some of his cloon activities in the letters. In the letter, he notes that cartq ordered the erection of the fort of La Navidad on the island of Hispaniola, leaving behind some Spanish colonists and traders. He reports that La Navidad is located near reported gold mines, and is a well-placed entrepot for the commerce that will doubtlessly soon be opened with the Great Khan “gran Can” on the mainland.
At the end of his printed letter, Luks promises coloj if the Catholic Monarchs back his bid to return with a larger fleet, he will bring back a lot of gold, spicescotton repeatedly referenced in the lettermastic gumaloeslavesand possibly rhubarb and cinnamon “of which I heard about here”. Columbus ends the letter urging their Majesties, the Church, and the people of Spain to give thanks to God for allowing him to find so many souls, hitherto lost, ready for conversion to Christianity and eternal salvation.
He also urges them to give thanks in advance for all the temporal goods found xantangel abundance in the Sanntangel that shall soon be made available to Castile and the rest of Christendom.
The Copiador version but not the printed Spanish or Latin editions also contains a somewhat bizarre detour into messianic fantasy, where Columbus suggests the monarchs should use the wealth of the Indies to finance a new crusade to conquer JerusalemColumbus himself offering to underwrite a large army of ten thousand cavalry and hundred thousand infantry to that end.
The sign off varies between editions. The printed Spanish letter is dated aboard the caravel “on the Canary Islands ” santabgel February 15, However, it is doubtful Columbus actually signed the original letter that way.
According to the Capitulations of Santa Fe negotiated prior to his departure AprilChristopher Columbus was not entitled to use the title of ” Admiral of the Ocean Sea” unless his voyage was successful.
It would be highly presumptuous for Columbus to sign his name that way in February or March, when the original letter was drafted, before that success was confirmed by the royal court.
In the Copiador version there are passages omitted from the printed editions petitioning lujs monarchs for the honors promised him at Santa Fe, and additionally asking for a cardinalate for his son and the appointment of his friend, Pedro de Villacorta, as paymaster of the Indies.
There is no name or signature at the end re the Copiador letter; it ends abruptly “En la mar” “At sea”. In the printed Spanish editions albeit not in the Latin editions nor the Copiadorthere is a small postscript dated March 14, written in Lisbonnoting that the return journey took only 28 days in contrast with the 33 days outwardbut that unusual winter storms had santahgel him delayed for an additional 23 days.
A codicil in the printed Spanish edition indicates that Columbus sent this letter to the “Escribano de Racion”, and another to their Highnesses. Carrta Latin editions contain no postscript, but end with a verse epigram added by Leonardus de Cobraria, Bishop of Monte Peloso.
Christopher Columbus’s letter is often compared to the letters of other early explorers, notably his contemporary Amerigo Vespucciwhose letters of —05 enjoyed even greater dissemination and popularity.
Columbus’s descriptions of the lands and peoples are not really as a detached observer, filled with sheer curiosity, but rather more as an invested entrepreneur with an eye for economic opportunities. It should be remembered that the Columbus expedition was commercial in purpose. Having failed to find the great markets and cities of China or India, he was returning with empty hulls. So it was unsurprising that in his letter, which has the purpose of reporting the results of his voyage to his investors, Columbus emphasized future economic prospects to make it appear a success.
At every turn, Columbus seems to attempt to portray the islands of the Indies as suitable for future colonization. The notion of colonization for profit was not unfamiliar at the time.
The Portuguese had already colonized the Atlantic islands of Madeira and the Azores and erected considerable export industries in timber, sugar and dragon’s bloodand the Castilian crown was in the process of completing its conquest of the Canary Islandsdrumming up trade in orchil and slaves as they went.
In his letter, Columbus’s co,on of the land focuses on listing exploitable natural resources and what can be built there in the future mines, towns, farmsrather than launching into descriptive dissertations. There are no extended allusions to an earthly Garden of Eden, marvelous vegetation or colorful songbirds, or the lhis of Indian villages, as can be found in Vespucci’s letters or in Columbus’s own journal.
It seems evident Columbus’s letter was written for an audience of European officials and merchants, not to delight the imagination of common European readers. The anthropological notes in Columbus’s letter are relatively sparse. He does not really inquire into or describe the local Arawak natives, their lifestyles, society or customs in much detail. Rather, Columbus’s letter is primarily focused on the natives’ interaction with the Spaniards, underlining their docility and amenability and other points relevant for the prospects of successful future colonization religion, exchange, notions of property, work capacity.
Aahe Manohar Tari – Sunita Deshpande. 13 likes. Book. I recently read one Marathi book called as “Aahe Manohar Tari” by Sunita Deshpande. She is wife of famous Marathi author P. L. Deshpande. Largest Online Books and Magazines Circulating Library in Mumbai. Read from collection of English Books, English magazines, Marathi Books, Marathi.
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Household food-waste composting is an attractive alternative for Brazilian waste.
Compostagem by Giovanna Monteiro on Prezi
In the first trial, the composter was filled weekly over two months. In the last third trial, the composter was filled with. The physical chemical parameters of the compost were monitored and the total.
In all trials, the temperature varied between Only the compost from Trial 2, which had MPN g. Esta pesquisa investigou o.
No compostfira ensaio, a composteira foi preenchida uma. O valor de pH, os teores. Brazilian households, small commercial enterprises and cleaning services produce nearly. The National Plan of Solid Waste prioritizes composting as an alternative. The few composting systems in operation in Brazil are mostly open-air, centralized and.
There are few programs or studies regarding household composting. Composting has advantages over incineration and disposal in landfills due to lower operating. There are also Brazilian regions in semi-arid climates with poor soil nutrients where the.
Further, there are highly populated urban areas. Composting is the decomposition and stabilization of the organic fraction of solid waste. The most important variables. It is evident that the success of household. Several small to medium sized composters L have been developed and their.
In this work, an exploratory study was conducted. Several investigations on home composting have been dlmestica over the past decade with a. Most of the research efforts cited have utilized laboratory scale bench or medium-sized. However, these systems cannot be installed in some houses due to the lack of. Therefore, this study evaluated the operation.
In various domestifa, composters. Wood chips used as a. The composting operation was divided. The food-residue size was composteirz reduced to 1. The food waste and wood chips ratio was. composteirz
Trial 1 — The composters were monitored in duplicate. A semi-continuous feed operating. The composters were filled within a seven-day frequency. In this trial, manual turning of the mixture was done daily. Trial 2 — On the first day the batch compost was filled with fresh food waste and wood.
The turning frequency during the first week was daily and every 7 days thereafter. The flowchart in Figure 2 illustrates the filling of the compost bins with sufficient. Several parameters were monitored over time: Temperature TpH, Moisture M. The pH value was determined with a pH meter equipped with electrodes using 1 g of the.
Total Kjeldahl nitrogen was. The compost quality was analyzed by considering the reference limits of the norms.
The composting process was monitored for 63 days in Trial 1, 42 days in Trial 2 and In all trials, the temperature of the domestifa. The highest temperatures observed were obtained in the first three days after the addition. The highest temperatures, According to Ryckeboer et al. The self-heating during the composting process is determined by the biodegradability.
The temperature variation below the thermophilic range observed in. Faverial and Sierra observed a change of only a few degrees above room. Figure 4 graphically shows the temporal behavior of some parameters that will be. The pH was monitored over time and a significant pH increase was evident in all trials. Table 2 and Figure 4-B. However, in Trials 1 and 2, the final pH 6. Trial 3, the final pH was domestcia.
The low pH values obtained at the start of the experiment can be. The moisture content was monitored throughout the process Figure 4-A domesrica Table 2 shows. In all trials, the moisture registered from the composted.
No leachate production was recorded in any of the performed. In Trial composteeira, which. This higher percentage is explained by the fact that no new. Moisture content is the second variable, after temperature, compoeteira strongly influences the. Extremely high levels of moisture. On the other hand, if the moisture level decreases below a critical. In addition, extremely low moisture contents may cause operational problems, resulting in.
The wet and dry mass of the compost mixture was determined at the beginning and end. The initial mass was significantly reduced in all experiments.
The third trial, on the other hand, showed a dry mass reduction of only. Although they help to control the.
However, the mass balance shown in Table 3 demonstrates higher. As expected, the carbon levels presented a similar behavior to the organic matter content. Although the final carbon levels coposteira greater than the initial levels in almost all.
The organic substrates and the structural materials. Table 4 shows that the results obtained in this study are consistent with those found in.
E-book gratuito ensina a fazer minhocário e composteira doméstica
The reduction in the organic matter content. Table 2 and Figure 4-E show that, with the exception of Trial 1, the nitrogen content. Trials 2 and 3, respectively Figure 4-F. At the end of the composting process, there was a. However, the rate of organic nitrogen mineralization is lower than that of organic.
Some literature reference values are given for home. Organic fertilizers class C, which includes raw materials originating from domestic waste. After each test, the final compost was sieved and particles compossteira than 0.
In Trials 2 and 3, com;osteira was slightly. Only the compost resulting from Trial 2 did not match the standards. This study has demonstrated that: Even if the compound did not always suit agricultural use, its low. Mass balances and life. Influence of composting system on compost quality with focus. Home composting of household biodegradable wastes under the. Household organic waste composting using. Experimental and modelling approaches for food waste.
Environmental assessment of two home composts with high and low gaseous emissions. A domesticx of bacteria and fungi occurring comoosteira composting and. Effect of bulking agents on maturity and.
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I won’t take up too much room! We can share a room. But tommorrow, we are looking for a roommate for you. The groping wasn’t an issue. 11832
She could deal with that she is a succubus, ya know. The giant groping paws, engulfing her chest. I don’t feel free at all in this! I can’t have you walking around with me, nude,” Morrigan said, putting her hair back in a ponytail.
House of Galactus Chapter 7: Kitty, a marvel vs capcom fanfic | FanFiction
You aren’t wearing much! Morrigan looked at her, then her bats form a midriff baring shirt, and a short skirt, with knee-high socks, and heels. Felicia stared dumbly at her.
X narrowed her eyes. Felicia giggled, probably not understanding the joke.
Sleeping by myself is kinda scary,” Felicia replied. I will be right back,” Morrigan said, then left the mansion. Felicia did exactly what she was told. Fifteen minutes later, Morrigan came back, holding a human shaped, more specifically a feminine shaped, body pillow. Felicia, I want you to try something,” Morrigan said. Give it a night, and if you can’t do it, I promise you can stay in my room any night you want to.
Is that okay with you? Then she formed a wide grin. Felicia wrapped her in a tight hug, then ran off. After she left go, Morrigan breathed a large breath. Leu In All Stories: Story Story Writer Forum Community. Games Marvel vs Capcom. Kei 7- Kitty “Please, Morrigan! Her name is Hsien-Ko! Why can’t you stay with her? They look so soft! Felicia constant groping was going to be an issue.
Felicia snuggled up closer to her, head resting on her breasts. To be honest, Felicia was cute.
But a horrible bedfellow. That looks more free to me You or the cat? You wanna house Felicia?
Hsien-Ko told me she keeps groping her. She smiled a bright smile. Felicia’s and Morrigan’s smile faded. I don’t think I can-” “That’s why I said try.
I can do it, Morrigan!
It is time for bed, for little kitties. Morrigan asked, drinking tea. I wasn’t scared at all! Vote or Die 3. Too Poor to Afford a Shirt 5.
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A number sign (#) is used with this entry because McArdle disease, or glycogen storage disease type V (GSD5), is caused by homozygous or compound. Glycogen storage disease type V (GSD-V) is a metabolic disorder, more specifically a glycogen . GeneReview/NIH/UW entry on Glycogen Storage Disease Type V · Asociación Española de Enfermos de Glucogenosis · Videos of advice and. Glucogenosis, tipo I, Glucogenosis, tipo II, 11 Glucogenosis, tipo III, Glucogenosis, tipo IV, Glucogenosis, tipo V, Glucogenosis, tipo VI.
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University of Washington, Seattle; April 19, ; Last Update: Glycogen storage disease type V GSDV, McArdle disease is a metabolic myopathy characterized by exercise intolerance manifested by rapid fatigue, myalgia, and cramps in exercising muscles.
Symptoms usually are precipitated by isometric exercise or sustained aerobic exercise. Most individuals improve their exercise tolerance by exploiting the “second wind” phenomenon with relief of myalgia and fatigue after a few minutes of rest.
Age of onset is frequently in the first decade of life but can vary. GSDV is diagnosed by clinical findings, supportive laboratory findings i. The diagnosis is confirmed by molecular genetic testing of PYGM encoding glycogen phosphorylase, muscle formthe only gene known to be associated with GSDV.
Targeted analysis for pathogenic variants identifies the most common pathogenic variants, p. Assay of myophosphorylase enzyme activity confirms the diagnosis when genetic diagnosis is unclear. Although no cure for GSDV is available, affected individuals benefit from moderate-intensity aerobic training e. Pre-exercise ingestion of sports drinks containing simple carbohydrates improves exercise tolerance and may protect against exercise-induced rhabdomyolysis.
Prevention of secondary complications: Caution with general anesthesia because it may cause acute muscle damage. To prevent occurrence of cramps and myoglobinuria, avoid intense isometric exercise and maximal aerobic exercise.
Evaluation of relatives at risk: When the family-specific pathogenic variants are known, early detection of GSDV in relatives at risk ensures proper management to prevent muscle injury leading to rhabdomyolysis and to improve long-term outcome — particularly by adoption of a healthy lifestyle i. GSDV is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner. Carrier testing for at-risk family members and prenatal diagnosis for pregnancies at increased risk are possible if the pathogenic variants have been identified in the family.
OMIM Entry – # – GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE V; GSD5
Glycogen storage disease type V GSDV is suspected in individuals with the following supportive clinical and laboratory findings. Cycle and walking test. A cycle test is a physiologic test in which only heart rate needs to be monitored to detect the pathognomonic heart rate response of the second wind phenomenon, manifest by all individuals with GSDV i. This test provides a sensitive, specific, and simple diagnostic test for GSDV with no possibility of false positive results. A walking test can also be performed in less specialized clinical settings to detect the second wind in persons with GSDV [ Buckley et al ].
The diagnosis of GSDV is confirmed in a proband by identification of biallelic pathogenic variants in PYGM on molecular genetic testing or — if genetic testing results are unclear — by assay of muscle myophosphorylase enzyme activity with biochemical or histochemical methods.
Molecular genetic testing of PYGMencoding myophosphorylase glycogen phosphorylase, muscle form Table View in own window. Genes and Databases for chromosome locus and protein. See Molecular Genetics for information on allelic variants. Arg50Ter has never been found in individuals of Japanese descent. Sequence analysis detects all the common variants discussed above as well as other variants that are benign, likely benign, of unknown significancelikely pathogenic, or pathogenic.
For issues to consider in interpretation of sequence analysis results, click here. Included in the variety of methods that may be used are: Large deletions of PYGM are very rare; a bp deletionc. Qualitative histochemistry or quantitative biochemical analysis in a muscle biopsy or muscle homogenate is diagnostic. Glycogen storage disease type V GSDV is a metabolic myopathy with onset frequently in the first decade of life.
Clinical heterogeneity exists; some individuals have mild symptoms manifesting as fatigue or poor stamina without cramps, whereas a severe, rapidly progressive form manifests shortly after birth. In some individuals, progressive weakness manifests in the sixth or seventh decade of life [ Wolfe et al ]. The fixed weakness that occurs in approximately one fourth of affected individuals is more likely to involve proximal muscles and is more common in individuals over age 40 years.
Most individuals learn to adjust their daily activities and can have relatively normal lives.
The usual presentation of GSDV is exercise intolerance, including stiffness or weakness of the muscles being used, myalgia, and fatigue in the first few minutes of exercise. These symptoms are usually precipitated by isometric exercise e. Any skeletal muscle can be affected.
Many blucogenosis remember painful symptoms from early childhood, but the disorder is rarely diagnosed before adulthood. Some people notice a worsening of their symptoms in middle age that may be accompanied by some muscle wasting.
Presentation with exertional dyspnea has been described [ Voduc et al ].
Most individuals learn to improve their exercise tolerance by exploiting the “second wind” phenomenon, a unique feature of GSDV, that is, relief of myalgia and rapid fatigue after a few minutes of rest. The ability to develop a second wind is greatly increased in those who keep physically fit through aerobic exercise, such as walking.
In contrast, sustained or strenuous exercise, such as lifting heavy weights or sprinting, carries a high risk of muscle damage. Continuing to exercise in the presence of severe pain also results in muscle damage rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria, with the attending risk of acute renal failure.
Kidney failure is almost always reversible, but emergency treatment is required [ Lucia et al ]. The first few minutes of any exercise have an anaerobic component. Depending on intensity and duration of the exercise, muscle uses different fuel sources such as anaerobic glycolysis, blood glucose, muscle glycogen, and aerobic glycolysis, followed by fatty acid oxidation.
Glycogen storage disease type V
At rest the main energy source is blood free fatty acids. These molecules are oxidized in the mitochondrial beta-oxidation pathway to produce acetyl-CoA, which is further metabolized through the Krebs cycle and the mitochondrial respiratory chain resulting in ATP production. glucogenpsis
ArgTer on clinical severity, no significant relationships were detected except for the ACE D allele and the disease severity score described by Martinuzzi et al  and Rubio et al [b]. The Spanish McArdle Disease patient registry reported a minimum prevalence in that country of nearly 1: An extremely rare instance of infantile sudden infant death syndrome SIDS in a family with myophosphorylase deficiency has been associated with the common PYGM pathogenic variant p.
Arg50Ter [ el-Schahawi et al ]. To establish the extent of disease and needs in an individual diagnosed with glycogen storage disease type V GSDVthe following evaluations are recommended:. Aerobic training on a regular diet. In some individuals, improvement in exercise and circulatory capacity has been reported, probably caused by the increased circulatory capacity, which facilitates delivery of blood-borne fuels [ Haller ].
A systematic review of physical training for GSDV published in the Cochrane Database concluded that there are no randomized or quasi-randomized controlled trials of aerobic training in people with GSDV; however, three studies using small numbers of participants provided some evidence that aerobic training improves fitness without adverse events in people with GSDV.
They suggested that it would be safe and glucpgenosis to conduct larger controlled trials of aerobic training in patients with GSDV [ Quinlivan et al ].
Age also had a negative effect on peak oxygen uptake. However, the peak oxygen uptake in patients who were physically active was 1. Seven patients 6 physically active had a peak oxygen uptake of 8 METs, which is the minimum threshold for optimal health. Three daily habits recommended by Haller  to improve the quality of life:. To prevent muscle breakdown rhabdomyolysis and myoglobinuria-induced renal damage: Exercises glucoyenosis involve heavy static contractions or induce severe myalgia should be avoided [ Quinlivan et alLucia et al ].
Risk of acute muscle damage is reported with certain general anesthetics usually muscle relaxants and inhaled anestheticsalthough in practice, problems appear to be rare. One report showed hyperthermia, pulmonary edema, and rhabdomyolysis [ Lobato et al ]; however, GSDV does not appear to cause severe perioperative problems in routine anesthetic care.
Nonetheless, measures for preventing muscle ischemia and rhabdomyolysis should be taken in individuals with GSDV [ Bollig ]. A study in which individuals with myopathy induced by one of the three lipid-lowering drugs atorvastatin, cerivastatin, and simvastatin were tested for the two more frequent PYGM pathogenic variants p. These findings provide preliminary evidence that PYGM glucogenozis may be predisposed to statin-induced myopathy; however, because only two pathogenic variants were assessed, some individuals in this study who were presumed to be carriers could actually be compound heterozygotes.
Early diagnosis of GSDV in relatives at risk may improve long-term outcome gucogenosis heightening awareness of the need to avoid repetitive episodes of muscle damage that may lead to rhabdomyolysis and fixed weakness. See Genetic Counseling for issues related to testing of at-risk relatives for genetic counseling purposes. The condition does not appear to adversely affect glucogenosiis and childbirth outcomes [ Quinlivan et alLucia et al ]. An glucogenpsis recombinant containing the full-length human myophosphorylase cDNA was efficiently transduced into phosphorylase-deficient sheep and human myoblasts, where it restored enzyme activity [ Pari et al ].
Adenovirus and adeno-associated virus-mediated delivery of human phosphorylase cDNA gglucogenosis LacZ cDNA to muscle in the ovine sheep model of McArdle disease showed expression of functional myophosphorylase and some re-expression of the non-muscle glycogen phosphorylase isoforms liver and brain isoforms in regenerating fibers [ Howell et al ]. Vitamin B 6 has been used because the overall body stores of pyridoxal phosphate are depleted in GSDV.
A gluogenosis effect has been documented in two individuals, but this requires confirmation [ Phoenix et alSato et al ]. Branched-chain amino acids BCA. Administration of BCA as alternative fuels to glycogen to six individuals worsened bicycle exercise capacity, possibly because of the free fatty acid-lowering effect of the amino acids [ MacLean et al ].
Genetic counseling is the process of providing individuals and families with information on the nature, inheritance, and implications of genetic disorders to help them make informed medical and personal decisions.
The following section deals with genetic risk assessment and the use of family history and genetic testing to clarify genetic status for family members. This section is not meant ttipo address all personal, cultural, or ethical issues that individuals may face or to substitute for consultation with a genetics professional.
Offspring of a proband. Other family members of a proband. Carrier testing for at-risk glucogenosls members is possible once the PYGM pathogenic variants have been blucogenosis in the family. See Management, Evaluation of Relatives at Risk for information on evaluating at-risk relatives for the purpose of early diagnosis and treatment. DNA banking is the storage of DNA typically extracted from white blood cells for possible future use.
Because it is likely that testing methodology and our understanding of genes, allelic variants, and diseases will improve in the future, consideration should be given to banking DNA of affected individuals.
Once the PYGM pathogenic variants have been identified in an affected family member, prenatal testing for a pregnancy at increased risk and preimplantation genetic diagnosis are possible. Biochemical testing cannot be done on fetal tissue as myophosphorylase is expressed only in differentiated muscle cells.
Differences in perspective may exist among glucogehosis professionals and within families regarding the use of prenatal testing, particularly if the testing is being considered for the purpose of pregnancy termination glucogenlsis than early diagnosis. While most centers would consider decisions regarding prenatal testing to be the choice of the glucogenpsis, discussion of these issues is appropriate. GeneReviews is not responsible for the information provided by other organizations.
For information on selection criteria, click here.
Fairbrother KJ, Heasman PA: Anticalculus agents. J Clin Periodontol ; the research associated with the development of anticalculus agents and to evalu-. Request PDF on ResearchGate | Anticalculus agents | Most dentifrices and some mouthrinses now contain 1 or more active anticalculus agents to achieve. With the help of antiplaque and anticalculus agents. Chemical plaque control – Rationale. Gingivitis & periodontitis are highly prevalent diseases and.
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Dental plaque is generally believed to be formed as a byproduct of agenys growth and comprises a dense microbial layer consisting of a mass of microorganisms embedded in a polysaccharide matrix.
Plaque tenaciously adheres to the surfaces of teeth, especially along irregular and rough surfaces, and is typically found at the gingival margin, in cracks in the enamel, and on the surface of built-up dental calculus. Gingivitis is generally believed to be caused by bacteria in the mouth particularly the bacteria instigated in plaque formation and the toxins formed as byproducts from the bacteria.
Periodontitis is generally believed to occur where unremoved plaque hardens into calculus tartar which affects the periodontal ligaments. Periodontitis is a progressively anticalxulus state of disease as compared to gingivitis. As plaque and calculus continue to build up, the gums anticalfulus to recede from the teeth and pockets form therebetween, which ultimately may result in destruction of the bone and periodontal ligament.
These reactions lead to the destruction of the supporting structure, continued infection, and potentially the subsequent loss of teeth. Dental calculus, or tartar, is a hard mineralized solid formed on the teeth when crystals of calcium phosphate are deposited in the pellicle and extracellular matrix of the dental plaque and become crystalline hydroxyapatite, sufficiently closely packed together for the aggregates to become resistant to deformation.
Regular brushing aids in preventing a rapid build-up of these deposits, but even regular brushing is not sufficient to remove all of the calculus deposits which adhere to the teeth. While there is no complete agreement on the route by which precipitated calcium and orthophosphate ultimately become the crystalline material called hydroxyapatite HAPit is generally agreed that at higher saturations above the critical saturation limit the precursor to crystalline HAP is an amorphous or microcrystalline calcium phosphate.
Agents which effectively interfere with crystalline growth of HAP will be effective as anticalculus agents. One suggested mechanism by which many anticalculus agents inhibit calculus formation involves an increase of the activation energy barrier thus inhibiting the transformation of precursor amorphous calcium phosphate to HAP, Studies have shown that there is a good correlation between the ability of a compound to prevent HAP crystalline growth in vitro and its ability to prevent calcification in vivo, provided that the compound is stable in and inert to other components in an oral care composition and to saliva in agentts oral cavity.
It is difficult to predict the antiplaque efficacy of antibacterial compounds when incorporated in a delivery vehicle and particularly in oral compositions having other active ingredients, such as anticalculus tartar control agents.
There is often a negative interaction between an antibacterial agent with other active ingredients or other components in a delivery vehicle of an oral care composition that reduces the effective performance of such oral compositions, including toothpaste and mouth rinses.
This is especially true for many anticalculus ageents. Active compounds extracted from magnolia include magnolol and honokiol which are antibacterial biphenol compounds.
An Overview on anticalculus agents – A review.
Tetrasodium pyrophosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate are anticalculus agents. Thus, there is a need for a highly effective antibacterial, antiplaque and anticalculus oral care composition to prevent or diminish oral care diseases. It has been found that anticakculus anticalculus agents such as tetrasodium pyrophosphate and sodium tripolyphosphate appear to inhibit uptake of antibacterial biphenoyl compounds.
Accordingly, by ensuring that the oral care compositions of the present invention are free of phosphate-containing anticalculus agents, inhibition of oral uptake is prevented.
In this way, delivery of the antibacterial biphenol compounds is significantly improved thereby antocalculus increase in antiplaque activity of angicalculus oral composition or enabling a reduction in the amount of the antibacterial biphenol compound needed to achieve antiplaque activity. Delivery of the biphenol compound is antiicalculus measured using a model system of delivery to saliva-coated hydroxyapatite discs, as described in further detail below.
As used herein, the term “phosphate” denotes phosphates and polyphosphates including pyrophosphates. Oral care compositions according to snticalculus invention must be free at least of tetrasodium pyrophosphate.
As referred to herein, such an “extract” of magnolia is an extract from dried cortex, or bark, of a plant from the Magnoliaceae family, such as Magnolia officinalis, herein “magnolia” or a synthetic or semi-synthetic equivalent of such an extract or an active component thereof.
Additionally, the agent may be developed from Magnolia officinalis, such as a synthetic magnolol, honokiol, tetrahydromagnolol, tetrahydrohonokiol, propylmagnolol, propylhonokiol, isopropylmagnolol, isopropylhonokiol, butylmagnolol, or butylhonokiol which have demonstrated bactericidal properties against representative oral bacteria S.
In certain embodiments of the present invention, the antibacterial ingredient in the active composition comprises one or more active compounds that have been isolated from an extract of magnolia.
In other embodiments, the antibacterial ingredient comprises an extract of magnolia. In certain embodiments, extracts of Magnolia Cortex the bark of Magnolia officinalis contain active compounds including: It should be noted that any plant from the Magnoliaceae family is suitable for the present invention and may be used in alternative embodiments.
In certain embodiments the extract comprises an antimicrobially effective concentration of a compound selected from the group consisting of magnolol, honokiol, tetrahydromagnolol, tetrahydrohonokiol, propylmagnolol, propylhonokiol, isopropylmagnolol, isopropylhonokiol, butylmagnolol, butylhonokiol and mixtures thereof.
Such an extraction may be carried out by conventional means known to one of skill in the art, for example, by using an extraction apparatus, such as a Soxhlet apparatus, which retains the solid material in a holder and allows the solvent to flow through the material; or by blending the solvent and material together and then separating the liquid and solid phases or two immiscible liquid phases, such as by filtration or by settling and decanting.
Magnolol and honokiol are non-ionic hydroxybiphenyl compounds, the structures of which are represented as follows:. Additionally, tetrahydromagnolol and tetrahydrohonokiol are hydrogenated analogs of magnolol and honokiol often found in relatively small concentrations in the extracts of magnolia, and as such may be included in the antibacterial ingredient.
The specific safe and effective amount of the compound will vary with such factors as the particular condition being treated, the physical condition of the subject, the nature of concurrent therapy if anythe specific compound used, the specific dosage form, the carrier employed, and the desired dosage regimen. Additionally, the concentration of the active ingredients is typically dependent upon the form of the ahticalculus composition.
For example, mouthrinses typically have a relatively low concentration of an active ingredient, as where dentifrices have a higher concentration to achieve the same delivered dosage based on ease of dispersion. Likewise, confectionary compositions typically have a relatively high concentration of active ingredient to enable sufficient dispersion as they dissolve or are masticated.
EBSCOhost | | An Overview on anticalculus agents – A review.
In one embodiment, it is present in the oral care composition in a concentration of about 0. In one embodiment, the compound is present in the oral care composition at a concentration of about 0. If added, the antibacterial active ingredients it is desirable that the additive does not substantially detract from the efficacy and bioavailability of the tartar control agents or the active compound of the extract.
In certain embodiments, the additional antibacterial active ingredients are nonionic. This agent in certain embodiments comprises a zinc ion source. The zinc ion source for the oral care composition of the invention may be any source known or developed in the art or any combination or mixture of such sources. Anyicalculus certain embodiments, zinc oxide may be used as zinc ion source of the oral care composition.
In fact, if anything, the addition of a zinc ion source such as zinc oxide to compositions according to the present invention improves the delivery of the biphenol compound. In one embodiment, 0. Such components may be selected from at least one of the following: Antivalculus common with other carrier components, in certain embodiments, the surfactant should be phosphate-free. Useful surfactants include anionic surfactants such as the water-soluble salts of alkyl sulfates having 10 to 18 antocalculus atoms in the alkyl radical and the water-soluble salts of sulfonated monoglycerides of fatty acids having 10 to 18 carbon atoms.
Sodium lauryl sulfates, sodium lauroyl sarcosinate and sodium coconut monoglyceride sulfonates are examples of anionic surfactants of this type. Sodium lauryl sulfate SLS is selected in certain embodiments.
The carrier can be a liquid, semi-solid or solid phase. The oral care compositions can be in the form of a dentifrice such as a toothpaste, toothpowder, prophylaxis paste or gel, typically intended for cleaning a hard surface within the oral cavity.
A dentifrice may include further optional ingredients such as adhesives, sudsing agents and abrasives. Examples of methods that can be used are set forth in, e. Concepts, Cases and Competencies, Daniel, S. Flick, Cosmetic and Toiletry Formulations, 2nd ed. The compositions may be applied to the subject in any suitable manner known in the art such as, for example, by introducing the composition to the subjects oral cavity using a suitable applicator or delivery device such as a brush, dental strip, film, syringe, tape, pill or any other applicator anticalcupus delivery device known in the art.
Typically, the oral compositions may be repeatedly applied to the subject over a number of days according to a particular treatment schedule. Instructions setting out such a schedule may be provided in commercial packaging with the product.
All percentages given are by weight of the composition unless otherwise indicated. Any value within the range can be selected as the terminus of the range. Xnticalculus addition, all references cited herein are hereby incorporated by reference in their entireties. In the event of a conflict in a definition in the present disclosure and that of a cited reference, the present disclosure controls. The disks may be obtained from Clarkson Chromatography Products Inc.
Uptake to the disks is determined as follows. All procedures are performed under room temperature, unless otherwise specified.
All uptake experiments require sample analysis in triplicate. Saliva supernatant is obtained by centrifuging whole saliva for 10 minutes at 10, RPM. Dentifrice slurry is obtained by dissolving dentifrice in distilled water at 1: The dentifrice and water mixture is stirred continuously for at least 30 minutes to ensure the mixture is homogenous.
The H 2 0 is aspirated and the rinsing is repeated once. Ethanol solution is then transferred into a 1 ml standard HPLC vial for analysis.
Quantitative HPLC is performed by comparison with suitable standard solutions and the concentration of active substance on the disk is determined. The compositions comprise an anticalculus agent and a Magnolia antibacterial agent, wherein the composition is free of phosphate-containing anticalculus agents.
The other materials in the formulations are present for other functions that can be obtained from an oral care composition and do not necessarily change the inventive combination of the anticalculus agent, which is free of phosphate- containing anticalculus agents, and the Magnolia antibacterial agent.
Anti-plaque and Anti-calculus Oral Care Product Testing
For example, while control dentifrice Formula 5 containing only 0. Similar results of compromised delivery in the presence of 0.
Additionally, addition of Zinc salts added for tartar benefit with and without sodium sulfate, formulas shown in Table 5, were tested to assess the impact anticalculhs the zinc salt on the delivery of magnolol on to saliva coated hydroxyapatite disks.
When Zinc oxide was also added to the formula, delivery of Magnolol is further slightly improved.
Anticalculus agents for the treatment, control, and prevention of periodontal disease.
For example, while dentifrice containing no zinc salt Formulas 9 provided the delivery of While the addition sodium sulfate alone Formula 11 did not impact magnolol delivery, such delivery was slightly improved in the presence of Zinc oxide Formula By making the compositions phosphate-free this inhibition is not observed.
Replacing the phosphate containing anticalculus agent with a phosphate-free anticalculus agent such as a zinc salt provides an oral care composition which has anticalculus properties and enhanced uptake of the antibacterial component.
The zinc salt is found to improve the delivery of the biphenol compound. Country of ref document: Kind code of ref document: Date of ref document: Ref legal event code: An oral care composition for treating or preventing calculus comprising an anticalculus agent and an antibacterial agent comprising a biphenol compound obtainable from Magnolia officinaliswherein the composition is free of phosphate-containing anticalculus agents.
SUMMARY  In a first aspect, the present invention provides an oral care composition for treating or preventing calculus, which composition comprises an anticalculus agent and an antibacterial agent comprising a biphenol compound obtainable from Magnolia officinalis, wherein the composition is free of phosphate-containing anticalculus agents.
Magnolol and honokiol are non-ionic hydroxybiphenyl compounds, the structures of which are represented as follows: An oral care composition for treating or preventing calculus comprising an anticalculus agent and a Magnolia antibacterial agent wherein the composition is free of phosphate-containing anticalculus agents. The oral care composition of claim 1, wherein the anticalculus agent comprises a zinc ion source. The oral care composition of claim 1, wherein the anticalculus agent consists essentially of a zinc ion source.
The oral care composition of any of claims 2 or 3, wherein the zinc ion source comprises zinc oxide. The oral care composition of any preceding claim, wherein the Magnolia antibacterial agent is selected from magnolol, honokiol, tetrahydromagnolol, tetrahydrohonokiol, propylmagnolol, propylhonokiol, isopropylmagnolol, isopropylhonokiol, butylmagnolol, and butylhonokiol.
The oral care composition of any preceding claim, wherein the Magnolia antibacterial agent comprises magnolol.
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BA datasheet, BA circuit, BA data sheet: ROHM – LED level meter driver, 5-point, VU scale,alldatasheet, datasheet, Datasheet search site for. BA Datasheet PDF Download – LED level meter driver/ 5-point/ VU scale, BA data sheet. Rohm BA datasheet, LED level meter driver/ 5-point/ VU scale (1-page), BA datasheet, BA pdf, BA datasheet pdf, BA pinouts.
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Forums New posts Search forums. Media New media New comments Search media. Articles Top Articles Search resources. Welcome to our site! Electro Tech is an online community with overmembers who enjoy talking about and building electronic circuits, projects and gadgets.
(PDF) BA Datasheet PDF Download – LED level meter driver/ 5-point/ VU scale
Thread starter joecool85 Start date Jul 13, I came across this chip and it looks really interesting. But the datasheet isn’t very explanatory. For instance, pin 7 is labeled as “Amp Output”, but what does that mean?
I would guess that the amp output is to drive an analogue meter or similar. NTE is basically a beefier replacement for the older BA series Vu meter driver originally manufactured by Rohm.
NTE1561 5 LED VU Meter IC questions
I don’t think NTE makes anything. They simply buy old parts, put their own number on b6a124 and triple the price. Their parts are replacements for the real thing so they do noy have details on their datasheets. If the original part is still manufactured then buy it instead.
NTE 5 LED VU Meter IC questions | Electronics Forum (Circuits, Projects and Microcontrollers)
Thanks vtech, very good info. Honestly I’ll probably just end up using an LM like everyone else, but this one is pretty cool and has better operating temperature range.
You cannot buy the original old Japanese IC because it is obsolete and is not made anymore.
But NTE will datashheet you one at their high price. The spacing for an LM is always 3dB from one step to the next step. I thought all chips like that were made in China these days.
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The Indian Premier League IPL is entering its tenth edition this year, but many of the franchises are kniht struggling to make money. The 10th edition of the professional Twenty20 cricket league begins on Wednesday.
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